Máquina de vapor

L a revolución industrial (XVII-XVIII) fue la época donde surgieron varios

cambios en la tecnología. En esa misma época se creo la maquina a vapor pero su origen no parte en esos siglos, si no que en muchos siglos atrás. Según mi investigación hay más de un creador de esta maquina pero muchos se quedaron en el camino y no siguieron con esta, hasta que Watt la tomó y le hizo bastantes arreglos generalmente de la perdida de energía que era el gran problema de esos siglos.

Origen de la maquina de vapor

 

Se dice que el primero en saber fue Heron de Alejandría en la civilización egipcia, en un escrito donde recopilo máquinas que ya eran conocidas y máquinas inventadas por el, en este escrito describe diferentes mecanismos y reacciones de aire caliente y de vapor de agua. Se dice que el fue el primero en crear la maquina a vapor debido a que descubrió de manera arcaica la ley de acción y reacción a través de experimentos con el vapor de agua con una maquina llamada ” Eolípia” siendo considerada la primera máquina térmica de la historia. A pesar de su esfuerzo este pequeño descubrimiento fue considerado como un juguete y no fue científicamente estudiada. Debo decir que este descubrimiento siendo considerado como juguete abrió mentes y grandes puertas para lo que fue la invención de maquina a vapor.

Eolípia

                             Eolípia

La primera maquina fue inventada por Eduard Somerset, la idea era llevar agua desde el primer piso hasta el segundo en un castillo en Londres. No pudo desarrollar la idea debido a que no tenia el dinero necesario para producir y vender la maquina, este tipo murió en la pobreza, tal vez si hubiese tenido el capital, podría haber inventado o avanzado en el descubrimiento de la maquina de vapor, en esa época la gente empezaba a realizar sus propias cosas, nacieron nuevos grupos sociales, fue una sociedad más compleja y más dinámica. Todo lo que pudo avanzar Eduard Somerset se le atribuyó a Samuel Morland quien realizó versiones mejoradas que dejó Somerset. En el siglo XVIII todos los elementos de la maquina a vapor habían sido inventados y aplicados a esta. Solamente faltaba un ingeniero que combinara conocimientos prácticos y teóricos que fuera capaz de aprovechar el poder del vapor en forma económica. Thomas Newcomen tomo este mando junto con su ayudante John Calley quienes inventaron la maquina a vapor atmosférica.

  Maquina de Newcomen

Dibujo2.JPG

 

Esta maquina es enorme debido a que esta diseñada para la producción de cosas muy grandes, mas o menos de el tamaño de una cuadra, y de alto es de 2 o 3 pisos.

Años más tarde esta maquina se utilizo en las mineras de Inglaterra pero por el elevado consumo de combustible que exigía el funcionamiento dificultó su aplicación en otras actividades. James watt se propuso mejorar la maquina de Newcomen, se gasto todo el capital que tenia por el desarrollo y el perfeccionamiento del condensador, se dio obligado a buscar empleo y abandonar su trabajo, pero apareció John Roebuck quien accedió a financiar sus experimentos con esta máquina. Watt desarrollo esta máquina convirtiéndola de un proyecto tecnológico a una forma económica de producir energía al fin y al cabo James Watt descubrió que la maquina de Newcomen estaba desgastando más de tres cuartos de energía del vapor en calentar la maquina.

 Maquina de Watt

3.JPG

 

Este maquina es de el mismo tamaño que la de Newcomen debido a que esta es tomada y tiene unas ligeras modificaciones.

La máquina a vapor en esos momentos fue un gran desarrollo en la historia. Watt le dio la humanidad práctica a esta máquina, desde que la desarrollo fue utilizada, hay que decir que la máquina a vapor dio un viaje completo en la historia que esta plagada de nombres que son propios de cada época, empezando desde los escritos de Herón de Alejandría que invento una pequeña máquina que muchos la tomaron como un juguete, pasando por tipos que aportaron en ideas, y dejando la máquina por problemas de dinero, varios dejaron sus diseños marcados para que los siguientes pudieran desarrollarla mejor.

Hoy en día las cosas se van perfeccionando al igual que la máquina de vapor, podríamos ver un ejemplo, como es el celular que empezó como un aparato gigantesco blanco y negro para solo realizar llamadas y con un creador que luego dejo de perfeccionarlo y llego otro quien le incorporo nuevas tecnologías como una pantalla diminuta, luego otro tipo le incorporó el color, la pantalla más grande, la cámara fotográfica y cada vez se fue haciendo más plano y más pequeño y vemos el resultado de hoy en día que es un Iphone, donde ya hay más de 10 elementos que usamos a diario en nuestras casas en un pequeño objeto. Las cosas se van modificando, la tecnología se modifica, pasando por varios creadores que van marcando historia pero todo empieza del origen del elemento, hoy en día tenemos varias cosas que son ultimas en nuestro planeta pero en unos años más la tecnología y los diseños estarán en manos de otros y se seguirán modificando y lo que tenemos hoy en día solo pasará a la historia.

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